The 27-year-old, who won Olympic gold in London, won with his third jump of 8.20m ahead of South Africans Zarck Visser and Rushwahl Samaii.
Rutherford picked up a silver medal four years ago in Delhi but doubts were cast over his fitness after he required an epidural injection in the build-up to even make it to qualifying.
But he proved that he is a major championship performer and has vowed to add more medals to what is a growing collection.
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"It's never an easy road and after what happened last year with injury and I wasn't sure if I could carry on jumping,” he said.
“Now I've managed to come away with another title. I think a few people had written me off thinking I was a one-hit wonder. But I'm here again and will be here again many more times. I'm super happy.
“I want to keep going out there jumping far and winning medals.”
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