Landis had been given 30 days to appeal last month's ruling by an arbitration panel which upheld findings by a French laboratory that he had used synthetic testosterone in winning the 2006 Tour.
"After much thought, I have decided to appeal my case to the Court of Arbitration of Sport," Landis said in a statement. "I want to take this opportunity to say again, that I am innocent of the doping allegations against me.
"I hope that the arbitrators of the case will fairly address the facts showing that the French laboratory made mistakes, which resulted in a false positive.
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"Although the process of proving my innocence has been difficult for me and my family, I will not stop trying to prove my innocence."
The 31-year-old Landis was stripped of his title as winner of the race and given a two-year racing ban following the arbitration panel's 2-1 ruling on September 20.
The laboratory's results received the backing of the United States Anti-Doping Agency which had challenged Landis at his California arbitration hearing earlier this year.
"We expect the same result that we had the first time around," USADA attorney Richard Young said. "But it's a fair system and that's his right."
Landis is the first rider in the Tour's history to be stripped of the title for a doping offence.
"We have always believed in the evidence showing that the French laboratory's flawed techniques and conclusions resulted in a false positive result," Maurice Suh, Landis's lawyer, said in a statement.
"This appeal is directed at having a fair-minded arbitration panel recognize those errors, and apply the facts and law to this case.
"If this is done, Floyd will have the justice that he seeks."
Oscar Pereiro of Spain, the 2006 Tour runner-up, will receive the winner's yellow jersey in a ceremony on Monday in Madrid.
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