Kuyt, 36, netted a hat-trick on Sunday to secure a first national championship for the Rotterdam club in 18 years.
He started his career at Utrecht before joining Feyenoord in 2003, and there he was the leading scorer for three seasons ahead of his £9million move to Liverpool.
While at Anfield, the Dutchman played in 285 games and scored 71 goals, including a late strike in the Champions League final defeat to AC Milan in 2007.
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Kuyt left the Reds to join Fenerbahce in 2012 before returning to De Kuip two seasons ago, a move which was initially supposed to only be on a short-term deal as he helped Feyenoord win the KNVB Cup.
The forward, who won 104 caps for Holland, playing in the 2010 World Cup final defeat to Spain, felt the time was right to finally hang up his boots.
"Throughout my career I have always followed my heart when taking decisions and that goes for this one too," Kuyt told feyenoord.com.
"To me this feels like the right time to retire . I have had two fantastic years here since returning to Feyenoord, with this season's title as the absolute pinnacle.
"I had the dream of winning trophies and becoming a champion with Feyenoord. All my dreams have come true."
Kuyt is expected to remain on at the Rotterdam club as part of Feyenoord's technical management alongside head coach Giovanni van Bronckhorst.
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