The Dutchman has been a star performer at the back this season for Liverpool, who have lost just one game and conceded just 22 goals heading into the final round of fixtures.
Van Dijk had already been named PFA Player of the Year, with Manchester City's Raheem Sterling claiming the Football Writers' Player of the Season award but the former Southampton man has won the public vote to be recognised as the league's top player.
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"It's a great honour and I'm very proud," he told the Premier League's official website.
"Without everyone here at Liverpool, fans and players, it wouldn't be possible so I will definitely give them credit for all of it as well.
"I think the whole season in the Premier League has been outstanding.
"The only thing is we have been competing with another team that’s pretty good. But I think it's a joy to watch, this title race, for neutral fans."
Liverpool sit a solitary point behind Man City heading into the final match of the season. They host Wolverhampton Wanderers, while Pep Guardiola's men travel to Brighton and Hove Albion.
The other nominees were City's Raheem Sterling, Sergio Aguero and Bernardo Silva, Van Dijk's Liverpool team-mates Mohamed Salah and Sadio Mane and Chelsea attacker Eden Hazard.
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