Cristiano Ronaldo moved back home, Lionel Messi left Manchester City wrongfooted, and Harry Kane decided he couldn't get his transfer.
The summer transfer window has now closed after a late flurry of deals, but how did your club perform? We take a look at the ins and outs of every Premier League club.
There will be no extension to do domestic deals, and we're now back to something like a traditional transfer window after the disruption of the coronavirus. That has of course dented club finances into this season and will continue to have an effect, but for some clubs it was business as usual - and that is not necessarily a good thing.
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Who, then, are the winners and losers from this summer of activity? With the new academic year upon us, let's give the clubs a grade for their performance, as if we have the insight to put professionals right.
(Estimated net spend figures from Transfermarket)

ARSENAL

Arsenal needed a huge rebuild at the start of the summer. They needed to be ready to hit the ground running and expunge the pessimism of last season. They needed to be decisive and give the fans something to cheer for.
Unfortunately none of their new signings have been able to do anything, really. Martin Odegaard returned from Real Madrid, while Ben White has yet to be able to make an impression. Aaron Ramsdale could step in for Bernd Leno, but there is a suspicion he is not demonstrably better than the German.
Albert Sambi Lokonga and Nuno Tavares (why did they buy another left-back?) could be exceptionally talented and useful players in two seasons, but that doesn't do anything for Mikel Arteta now, who is running out of time until the dressing room ambience becomes terminal. Arsenal needed a summer transfer window that they have neither the money nor the network for, and bringing in Takehiro Tomiyasu to replace Hector Bellerin does not scream success.

Japanese defender Takahiro Tomiyasu has joined Arsenal from Bologna

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With both Alexandre Lacazette and Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang yet to move on, they are being drained of cash that they would rather spend elsewhere, a reminder of years of mismanagement and insecurity.
Ins: Ben White (Brighton £52.65m), Martin Odegaard (Real Madrid, £31.5m), Aaron Ramsdale (Sheffield United, £25.2m), Albert Sambi Lokonga (Anderlecht, £15.75m), Nuno Tavares (Benfica, £7.2m), Takehiro Tomiyasu (Bologna, £16.74m).
Outs: Lucas Torreira (Fiorentina, loan), David Luiz (end of contract), Mark McGuinness (Cardiff, undisclosed), Trae Coyle (FC Lausanne-Sportm undisclosed), Zech Medkley (KV Oostende, undisclosed), Dinos Mavropanos (Stuttgart, loan), Daniel Ballard (Millwall, loan), Ben Sheaf (Coventry, undisclosed), Matt Smith (Doncaster, loan), Matteo Guendouzi (Marseille, loan), William Saliba (Marseille, loan), Tyrece John-Jules (Blackpool, loan), Harry Clarke (Ross County, loan), Joe Willock (Newcastle, £26.46m), Willian (Corinthians, free transfer), Reiss Nelson (Feyenoord, loan), Hector Bellerin (Real Betis, loan), Runar Runarsson (Leuven, loan), Dejan Iliev (SKF Sered, loan).
Net spend: £121.23m
Rating: C

ASTON VILLA

Villa have perhaps pulled off the most assiduous transfer window of any club in the Premier League. With £100m in for Jack Grealish after he joined Manchester City, they had already spent a similar amount in order to avoid being held to ransom by other clubs. The players they have brought in all offer experience, potential, and many directly replace what their talisman had to offer.
Leon Bailey from Leverkusen should offer pace and a direct threat down the wings, and he is young enough that - should he succeed - he will be able to be sold at a profit down the line. Emi Buendia can provide creativity between the lines, as the tactics nerds say, and Danny Ings is a reliable provider of Premier League goals. Ashley Young returns for one or two more years and can play on both flanks, in defence, midfield and attack, so will be able to bulk out the squad in a variety of positions. Axel Tuanzebe arrives from Manchester United for the season, with a chance to prove himself yet again.

Danny Ings

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Ins: Leon Bailey (Bayer Leverkusen, £28.8m), Emi Buendia (Norwich £34.56m), Ashley Young (Inter, free), Danny Ings (Southampton, £31.68m), Axel Tuanzebe (Manchester United, loan)
Outs: Ahmed Elmohamady (end of contract), Tom Heaton (Manchester United, free), Neil Taylor (end of contract), Wesley (Club Brugge, loan), Bjorn Engels (Royal Antwerp, undisclosed), Sebastian Revan (Grimsby, loan), Kaine Kesler Hayden (Swindon, loan), Jack Grealish (Manchester City, £105.75m), Louie Barry (Ipswich, loan), Brady Young (Carlisle, loan), Mbwana Samatta (Fenerbahce, £5.4m), Bjorn Engels (Royal Antwerp, £3.6m), Conor Hourihane (Sheffield United, loan), Frederic Guilbert (Strasbourg, loan)
Net spend: £95.04m
Rating: B+

BRENTFORD

Brentford's owner has attempted to specialise in getting good value from whatever he does, and now he has a Premier League club as an asset. If we assume he is using the moneyball playbook in some respect, then he will presumably not wish to overpay on players only to have to panic in a firesale should they go down. That is borne out by the spending so far. Kristoffer Ajer should be a decent presence at the back, but there's not much to say about the rest.
Yoane Wissa, Frank Onyeka and Alvaro Fernandez are all obscure except to the #europeanfootballexperts knocking about Twitter, and there is a step-up required from Midtjylland, Lorient and Huesca to cut it in the Premier League. The pressure is on them to adjust and to do so quickly. So far, it appears to have worked. Myles Peart-Harris is an example of a Brentford trademark - let other clubs develop young players and then take a chance on them when they are ready to move on.

BRENTFORD, ENGLAND - AUGUST 13: Christian Norgaard of Brentford scores their team's second goal during the Premier League match between Brentford and Arsenal at Brentford Community Stadium on August 13, 2021 in Brentford, England.

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Ins: Frank Onyeka (FC Midtjylland, undisclosed), Kristoffer Ajer (Celtic, £14.13 m), Yoane Wissa (FC Lorient, £9m), Myles Peart-Harris (Chelsea, £1.35m), Alvaro Fernandez (Huesca, loan)
Outs: Aaron Pressley (AFC Wimbledon, loan), Henrik Dalsgaard (FC Midtjylland, free transfer), Luke Daniels (end of contract), Emiliano Marcodes (end of contract), Ellery Balcombe (Burton Albion, loan), Patrik Gunnarsson (Viking FK, loan).
Net spend: £19.71m profit
Rating: B

BRIGHTON

Graham Potter has earned the chance to be bankrolled after successfully negotiating another season in the Premier League on a limited budget. That budget is in force again, with a few unknown faces brought in as Brighton look to step up from relegation-threatened survivors to established mid-table competitors.
Aged just 19, Jeremy Sarmiento is one for the future, unless the club get desperate or exceedingly lucky. More will immediately be expected of Enock Mwepu who has cost £20m from RB Salzburg. The 23-year-old midfielder comes with pedigree and if the Zambian impresses then he could form a solid pairing with Yves Bissouma. The club still need to replace Ben White, but they may be counting on the returning Shane Duffy after his miserable spell at Celtic.

Graham Potter, Brighton manager

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Ins: Jeremy Sarmiento (Benfica, undisclosed), Enock Mwepu (Red Bull Salzburg, £20.7m), Kjell Scherpen (Ajax, £4.5m), Karou Mitoma (Kawasaki Frontale, undisclosed), Marc Cucurella (Getafe, £16.2m), Abdallah Sima (Slavia Prague, undisclosed)
Outs: Ben White (Arsenal, £52.65m), Davy Propper (PSV Eindhoven, free transfer), Andrew Crofts (end of contract), Jose Izquierdo (end of contract), Teddy Jenks (Aberdeen, loan), Alex Cochrane (Hearts, loan), Ryan Longman (Hull, loan), Viktor Gyokeres (Coventry, undisclosed), Mat Ryan (Real Sociedad, undisclosed), Carl Rushworth (Walsall, loan), Jan Mlakar (Hadjuk Split, undisclosed), Kaoru Mitoma (Royal Union Saint-Gilloise, loan), Florin Andone (Cadiz, loan), Paul van Hecke (Blackburn, loan). Michal Karownik (Olympiacos, loan), Alirez Jahanbakhsh (Feyenoord, undisclosed), Percy Tau (El Ahly, undisclosed), Bernardo (RB Salzburg, undisclosed), Viktor Gyokeres (Coventry, undisclosed), Abdallah Sima (Stoke City, loan)
Net spend: £4.95m
Rating: B

BURNLEY

Burnley have had another unremarkable summer transfer window, but you cannot doubt how effective Sean Dyche is when it comes to his dealings. Nathan Collins arrives from Stoke City after being chased by bigger clubs, and most of his fee is paid for by the sale of Ben Gibson to Norwich City.
Aaron Lennon and Wayne Hennessey both represent players who will cost little given the stage they are at in their careers, and will be handy, experienced squad members to bulk up numbers.
The most interesting player though is Maxwel Cornet, a pacey, attacking and experienced left-back who offers something different from the usual obdurate offering from Burnley's full-backs.
Ins: Maxwel Cornet (Lyon, £13.5m), Nathan Collins (Stoke City, £12.6m), Jacob Bedeau (Scunthorpe, free transfer), Aaron Lennon (Kayserispor, free transfer), Wayne Hennessey (Crystal Palace, free transfer)
Outs: Ben Gibson (Norwich City, £8.37m), Lukas Jensen (Carlisle United, loan), Jimmy Dunne (QPR, undisclosed), Bailey Peacock-Farrell (Sheffield Wednesday, loan), Robbie Brady (end of contract)
Net spend: £20.34m
Rating: B+

CHELSEA

Chelsea needed an excellent striker, and now they have one. Romelu Lukaku should perhaps have never left Stamford Bridge, though the way he developed his career means that the Belgian is perhaps perfect for his former and current club. Moving to West Brom, Everton and Manchester United allowed him to step up and learn the ropes gradually, and become the dominant striker at each of the clubs. United will have told him all about high-level pressure, and then his move to Inter Milan will have given him a taste for and experience of league titles.
The late addition of Saul Niguez gives them a huge uplift in quality in midfield, too, and should soften the blow of missing out on Jules Kounde, and also gives Trevor Chalobah a chance to prove himself.
Thomas Tuchel and Chelsea fans will be hoping he can repeat the trick this year.

Lukaku and Tuchel at Anfield

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Ins: Romelu Lukaku (Inter Milan £103.5m), Marcus Bettinelli (Fulham, free transfer), Saul Niguez (Atletico Madrid, loan)
Outs: Tammy Abraham (Roma, £36m), Kurt Zouma (West Ham, £31.5m), Fikayo Tomori (AC Milan, £26.28m), Marc Guehi (Crystal Palace, £9m), Davide Zappacosta (£8.1m), Victor Moses (Spartak Moses, £4.5m), Olivier Giroud (AC Milan, £900k), Emerson (Lyon, loan), Kenedy (Flamengo, loan), Michy Batshuayi (Besitkas, loan), Marco van Ginkel (PSV, free transfer), Danilo Pantic (Partizan, free transfer), Izzy Brown (Preston, free transfer), Jake Clarke-Salter (Coventry, loan), Abdul-Rahman Baba (Reading, loan), Matt Miazga (Alaves, loan), Billy Gilmour (Norwich, loan), Jamal Blackman (end of contract), Willy Caballero (end of contract), Conor Gallgher (Crystal Palace, loan), Danny Drinkwater (Reading, loan), Timoue Bakayoko (AC Milan, loan), Ethan Ampadu (Venezia, loan)
Net spend: £2.12m profit
Rating: A

CRYSTAL PALACE

There is not a great deal to say about Patrick Vieira's time at Nice besides the fact that he didn't disgrace himself. His time at New York FC will tell us even less, given the lack of quality in MLS and the fact it is a feeder club for Manchester City - the requirements are not up to standard.
Nevertheless, he has been well backed by the club's owners. Conor Gallagher provides technical ability in midfield and has contributed attacking threat already. Joachim Andersen is a solid presence at the back, and perhaps Marc Guehi will be able to offer the same.

Conor Gallagher of Crystal Palace celebrates after scoring with team mate Christian Benteke during the Premier League match against West Ham United, London Stadium, August 28, 2021

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The focus will be on Odsonne Edouard, though, with the former Celtic striker now at Selhurst Park. He must surely be able to offer more than Christian Benteke, and linking up with Wilfried Zaha will be essential.
It is clear that Vieira wants to bring down the average age of the squad he inherited from the similarly superannuated Roy Hodgson, but rarely do such huge transitions work smoothly. Vieira was an adept and sophisticated player as he moved from physical dominance to relying on his nous and experience. This transfer window gives him the chance to do the same,
Ins: Marc Guehi (Chelsea, £21m), Joachim Andersen (Lyon, £15.75m), Michael Olise (Reading, £8.37m), Will Hughes (Watford, £6.3m), Remi Matthews (Sunderland, free transfer), Jacob Montes (New England Revolution, undisclosed), Conor Gallagher (Chelsea, loan), Odsonne Edouard (£14.67m)
Outs: James McCarthy (Celtic, free transfer), Gary Cahill (Bournemouth, free transfer), Andros Townsend (Everton, free transfer), Patrick van Aanholt (Galatasaray, free transfer), Mamadou Sakho (Montpellier, free transfer), Wayne Hennessey (Burnley, free transfer), Jacob Montes (Waast Beveren, loan), Sam Woods (end of contract)m Connor Wickham (end of contract), Scott Dann (Reading, free transfer), Stephen Henderson, (end of contract).
Net spend: £66.09m
Rating: B+

EVERTON

Few Everton fans were delighted to be given Rafael Benitez as the manager to replace Carlo Ancelotti. Ancelotti is suave and fun, not afraid to score goals. He has plenty of weaknesses, but he turns up somewhere to have a good time and make the most of what life has to offer.
Benitez appears to have none of those predilections. Indeed, the football he asks of his players is more anti-fun than anti-football, because it is often effective. That, for some, is enough to gain defenders, but this summer's transfer window should not leave anyone especially optimistic.
In Lonergan there is another ex-Liverpool presence, and Asmir Begovic means that Benitez has brought in two goalkeepers in his first transfer window. Andros Townsend will offer pace on the wings, but not a great deal else besides shooting profligacy. Salomon Rondon is a striker trusted by Benitez and has turned up at the last minute, which nevertheless suggests that the club were looking at better alternatives and ran out of time or resources.
There is one potential spark, though. Demarai Gray showed talent at Birmingham and a little zest at Leicester City. It might not have worked out for him at Leverkusen, but back in his home country, he is a potentially dangerous winger. James Rodriguez remains, and it will be a test to see if Benitez can find out how to use him.

Demarai Gray

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Ins: Demarai Gray (Bayer Leverkusen, £1.8m), Andy Lonergan (West Brom, free transfer), Andros Townsend (Crystal Palace, free transfer), Asmir Begovic (Bournemouth, free transfer), Salomon Rondon (DL Pro, free transfer)
Outs: Bernard (Sharjah FC, £900k), Theo Walcott (Southampton, free transfer), Matthew Pennington (Shrewsbury, free transfer), Yannick Bolasi (Rizespor, free transfer), Josh King (Watford, free transfer), Bani Baningime (Hearts, undisclosed), Joao Virginia (Sporting Lisbon, loan), Muhamed Besic (end of contract), Moise Kean (Juventus, loan), Niels Nkounkou (Standard Liege, loan)
Net spend: £5.4m profit
Rating: C-

LEEDS UNITED

Marcelo Bielsa's time at Leeds is not remarkable for the success he has delivered - like every other club he's been at over the last two decades, he hasn't actually won something.
However, he produces teams that are delighted to run themselves into the ground for him and losing just as often as they win. It's fun, it's mildly entertaining, and it usually implodes when everyone gets sick of the physical and mental exhaustion.
One way to mitigate that is to supply him with a steady stream of young players who are not yet fed up of the whole carry-on and ready to commit to football played in a way that nobody else does. Jack Harrison, Junior Firpo and Daniel James all have that verve, and no little talent. This could be Bielsa's best season with Leeds yet, or it could all fall apart in recrimination and misery.
Ins: Junior Firpo (Barcelona, £13.5m), Jack Harrison (Manchester City, £11.52m), Kristoffer Klaesson (Valerenga, £1.8m), Daniel James (Manchester United, £26.19m)
Outs: Barry Douglas (Lech Poznan, free transfer), Ezgjan Alioski (Ahli, free transfer), Ouasim Bouy (Al-Kkaraitiyat, free transfer), Pablo Hernandez (Castellon, free transfer), Mateusz Bogusz (Ibiza, loan), Kiko Casilla (Elche, loan), Leif Davis (Bournemouth, loan), Ian Poveda (Blackburn, loan), Gaetano Berardi (end of contract), Eunan O'Kane (end of contract), Robbie Gotts (Barrow, undisclosed), Jordan Stevens (Barrow, undisclosed), Helder Costa (Valencia, loan)
Net spend: £53.01m
Rating: B+

LEICESTER CITY

Brendan 'Brendan' Rogers might only be now emerging from his time at Liverpool to be showing himself as an indisputably effective Premier League manager, and as he entered this transfer window he was on the cusp of shaping a Leicester side that was unarguably his.
Leicester's scouting operation has always been one of their strong points, and they have two relative bargains from England. The imperfect Jannik Vestergaard will be a better option than the retiring Wes Morgan, and Ryan Bertrand is superior to Christian Fuchs. Callum Hudson-Odoi would have been a useful presence on the wings, but they could not pull off a late attempt.
From abroad, Patson Daka may force Jamie Vardy and Ayoze Perez to keep their standards high and improve them, respectively, and Baboukary Soumare could be yet another midfield bargain that no other Premier League team was willing to take a risk on. It would not be the first time Leicester benefit from such a situation.

Patson Daka of Leicester City celebrates after scoring his team's second goal during the Pre-Season Friendly match between Queens Park Rangers and Leicester City at The Kiyan Prince Foundation Stadium on July 31, 2021 in London, England.

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Ins: Patson Daka (RB Salzburg, £27m), Boubakary Soumare (Lille, £18m), Jannik Vestergaard (Southampton, £15.84m), Ryan Bertrand (Southampton, free transfer), Ademola Lookman (RB Leipzig, loan)
Outs: Rachid Ghezzal (Besiktas, £2.7m), Christian Fuchs (Charlotte Independence, free transfer), Matty James (Bristol City, free transfer), Wes Morgan (retired), Dennis Praet (Torino, loan)
Net spend: £57.24m
Rating: A-

LIVERPOOL

Liverpool did not exactly mortgage their future when they added Alisson and then Virgil van Dijk at huge expense, because the success of the Champions League and Premier League has established themselves as one of the biggest sides in Europe once again.
Last season, because of the coronavirus and the failure of the European Super League to take off, it appears that FSG have been somewhat spooked by the idea of heavy spending for the squad. The focus is on keeping their existing squad together. As excellent as it is, with the psychological and physical demands placed upon the team by Jurgen Klopp, the squad needs to be refreshed.
Ibrahima Konate is an excellent addition to the backline that should really no longer rely upon Joel Matip, but ahead of them the midfield is looking a bit tired, and their brilliant attacking trio will eventually run out of inspiration. That may not matter this season, but it is a gamble nonetheless. Fans were left stunned that Divock Origi and other squad also-rans were not moved on to provide funds for more to be done.

Ibrahima Konaté

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Ins: Ibrahima Konate (RB Leipzig, £36m)
Outs: Harry Wilson (Fulham, £12.6m, Taiwo Awoniyi (Union Berlin, £5.85m), Xherdan Shaqiri (Lyon, £5.4m), Marko Grujic (Porto, loan), Ben Woodburn (Hearts, loan), Ben Davies (Sheffield United, loan), Rhys Williams (Swansea City, loan)
Net spend: £11.25m
Rating: B-

MANCHESTER CITY

It is quite something to go into a transfer window as favourites to sign one Lionel Messi, Harry Kane, and then Cristiano Ronaldo, and then deliver Jack Grealish and Scott Carson.
Of course, Grealish is perhaps the most exciting English talent with Premier League experience, so they will consider themselves an improved squad, and one that came close to a Champions League win last season, were it not for a freakishly controlled Chelsea performance.

Jack Grealish of Manchester City celebrates after scoring their side's second goal during the Premier League match between Manchester City and Norwich City at Etihad Stadium on August 21, 2021 in Manchester, England.

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That will be the aim this season, but the question will remain until and unless Gabriel Jesus proves himself - will there be enough goals now that Sergio Aguero has gone to Barcelona to play with Lionel Messi's shadow?
Ins: Jack Grealish (Aston Villa, £105.75m), Scott Carson (Derby County, free transfer)
Outs: Angelino (RB Leipzig, £16.2m), Jack Harrison (Leeds, £11.52m), Lukas Nmecha (Wolfsburg, £7.2m), Sergio Aguero (Barcelona, free transfer), Eric Garcia (Barcelona, free transfer), Ko Itakura (Schalke, loan), Daniel Arzani (Lommel, free), Arijanet Muric (Demirspor, loan), Ryotaro Meshino (Estoril, loan), Filip Stevanovic (Heerenveen, loan), Marlos Moreno (Kortrijk, loan), Issa Kabore (Troyes, loan), Tommy Doyle (Hamburg, loan)
Net spend: £70.83m
Rating: B

MANCHESTER UNITED

The first transfer window that Ed Woodward has not been front and centre of since the departure of Alex Ferguson, and how did Manchester United cope without their transfer guru, the man who promised to make other clubs envious.
Well, without his expert assistance the club signed Jadon Sancho - last year's target, Raphael Varane - last decade's target, and Cristiano Ronaldo - 2003's target.
The reason for these transfers might simply be cold, hard cash, but you can look at previous windows that United have attacked with similar largesse, and be disappointed. This window has made United title challengers, and hacked off their neighbours.

Jason Sancho of Manchester United arrives prior to the Premier League match between Southampton and Manchester United at St Mary's Stadium

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Ins: Jadon Sancho (Borussia Dortmund, £76.5m), Raphael Varane (Real Madrid, £36m), Tom Heaton (Aston Villa, free transfer), Cristiano Ronaldo (Juventus, £13.5m)
Outs: Joel Pereira (RKC Waalwijk, free transfer), Brandon Williams (Norwich, loan), Andreas Pereira (Flamengo, loan), Tahith Chong (Birmingham, loan), Facundo Pellistri (Alaves, loan), Axel Tuanzebe (Aston Villa, loan), Sergio Romero (end of contract), Daniel James (Leeds, £26.19m)
Net spend: £99.81m
Rating: A

NEWCASTLE

Steve Bruce has had to endure Mike Ashley and the Newcastle fans for a couple of seasons and one gets the impression that he knows that this is still the biggest job he will ever get, and it's for his hometown club. The opportunity cannot be denied, and so he has to battle against Ashley for money, and defend his austerity decisions to the fans.
The arrival of Joe Willock makes permanent Bruce's best transfer choice of last season, and there is real quality in places. If Sean Longstaff can rediscover his form, and Miguel Almiron can locate his neat passing once again, then with Allan Saint-Maximin on the wings, Callum Wilson could be supplied with plenty of chances. The question will be with the defence that has not been strengthened.

Newcastle United midfielder Joe Willock

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Ins: Joe Willock (Arsenal, £26.46m), Santiago Minoz (Santos Laguna, loan)
Outs: Christian Atsu (Al-Raed, free transfer), Yoshinori Muto (Vissel Kobe, free transfer), Jake Turner (Colchester United, free transfer), Florian Lejeune (Alaves, undisclosed), Matty Longstaff (Aberdeen, loan), Andy Carrol (end of contract), Henri Saivet (end of contract)
Net spend: £26.46m
Rating: C

NORWICH CITY

Norwich were unable to do much in their last season in the Premier League and their transfer strategy appeared to be to spend a relatively small sum in order to improve the squad so they stood a chance of staying up, but to not spend so much that relegation would cause financial distress.
In terms of the latter, it worked, even if they were favourites to go down from the outset. The same appears to be true this campaign, too. If Ozaban Kabak can show his early Schalke form then perhaps, with Ben Gibson, there will be usefully sturdy centre-back pairing, but despite the arrival of Josh Sargent, it is tough to see where many goals will come from.
Ins: Christos Tzolis (POAK, £9.9m), Milot Rashica (Werder Bremen, £9.9m), Josh Sargent (Werder Bremen, £8.55m), Ben Gibson (Burnley, £8.37m), Dimitrios Giannoulis (PAOK, £6.75m), Pierre Lees Melou (Nice, £5.4m), Mathias Normann (Rostov, loan), Flynn Clarke (Peterborough, undisclosed).
Outs: Emi Buendia (Aston Villa, £34.56m), Mario Vrancic (Stoke City, free transfer), Philip Heise (Karlsruher, free transfer), Moritz Leitner (Zurich, free transfer), Orjan Nyland (Bournemouth, free transfer), Marco Stiepermann (SC Paderborn, free transfer), Tom Trybull (Hannover, free transfer), Louis Thompson (Portsmouth, free transfer), Daniel Adshead (Gillingham, loan), Jordan Hugill (West Brom, loan), Onel Hernandez (Middlesbrough, loan), Danel Sinani (Huddersfield, loan), Sebastian Soto (Porto, loan), Sam McCallum (QPR, loan), Akin Famewo (Charlton, loan), Josh Martin (MK Dons, loan), Daniel Barden (Livingston, loan), Timm Klose (end of contract)
Net spend: £24.98m
Rating: C

SOUTHAMPTON

The worst development of the transfer window for Southampton was realising they would have to let Danny Ings go if a serious offer came in. To get £30m from Aston Villa is good business considering Ings' age, contract status and injury record, but it does not easily replace the steady supply of goals he provided, which were crucial to the team staying up.
Adam Armstrong is his replacement, and to be frank, the chances of him stepping up and being enough are remote, so the focus will be on whether Theo Walcott can operate successfully through the middle or down the wing to do offer a threat. Now 32, it seems a stretch.
Ins: Adam Armstrong (Blackburn, £15.93m), Romain Perraud (Brest, £10.8m), Lyanco (Torino, £6.75m), Valentino Livramento (Chelsea, £5.31m), Dynel Simeu (Chelsea, £1.58m), Theo Walcott (Everton, free transfer), Thierry Small (Everton, undisclosed), Armando Broja (Chelsea, loan)
Outs: Danny Ings (Aston Villa, £31.68m), Jannik Vestergaard (Leicester, £15.84m), Angus Gunn (Norwich City, £5.27m), Mario Lemina (Nice, £4.95m), Ryan Bertrand (Leicester, free), Jake Hesketh (Eastleigh), Wesley Hoedt (Anderlecht, undisclosed), Josh Sims (end of contract), Dan N'Lundulu (Lincoln City, loan)
Net spend: £18.95m profit
Rating: B-

TOTTENHAM

The biggest success of the transfer window for Spurs is that they have managed to keep hold of Harry Kane. While £160 million would have gone a long way to funding a hefty splurge in the market, Gareth Bale's exit to Real Madrid demonstrated just how hard it is to replace one superstar with several new faces. Further, there is no guarantee that Daniel Levy would not have kept much of the fee to soften the blow from the coronavirus pandemic.
Of the players they have bought, it is unlikely that Bryan Gil can do any worse than the inconsistent Erik Lamela, who went the other way. Cristian Romero is a younger alternative to Toby Alderweireld, who departs for one last hurrah and payday. Whether that is enough for Nuno Espirito Santo to take the club back to the Champions League is another matter, but with Kane and Son Heung-min's goals still there, they will be a threat to any side - as they showed Manchester City in their opening game. Emerson Royal's arrival will, they hope, replace Kieran Trippier after relying on the disappointing Serge Aurier.

Harry Kane

Image credit: Getty Images

Ins: Bryan Gil (Sevilla, £22.5m), Pape Sarr (Metz, £15.21m), Pierluigi Gollini (Atalanta, loan), Cristian Romero (Atalanta, loan), Emerson Royal (Barcelona, £21.5m)
Outs: Juan Foyth (Villarreal, £13.5m), Toby Alderweireld (Al-Duhail SC, £11.7m), Moussa Sissoko (Watford, £3.15m), Joe Hart (Celtic, £1.08m), Erik Lamela (Sevilla, free transfer), Paulo Gazzaniga (Fulham, free transfer), Danny Rose (Watford, free transfer), Pape Sarr (Metz, loan), Alfie Whiteman (Degerfors) Serge Aurier (end of contract), Cameron Carter-Vickers (Celtic, loan)
Net spend: £30.78m
Rating: B

WATFORD

Watford are usually busy in the transfer market and their turnover is once again high. The method the club seems to be bring in players regularly enough that eventually you alight on quality, and you can always shift the failures on quickly.
This season they appear to have focused on securing some bargains, and they have two experienced players from Spurs: Moussa Sissoko and Danny Rose. Josh King and Ashley Fletcher are improvements on Troy Deeney, but only barely.
Deeney's exit means that they will be looking for a new leader to step up from within the club, which will be tough given the previously mentioned commitment to getting players in and out every six months.
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Ins: Imran Louza (Nantes, £9m), Emmanuel Dennis (Club Brugge, £3.6m), Moussa Sissoko (Spurs, £3.15m), Ozan Tufan (Fenerbahce, loan), Mattie Pollock (Grimsby, £270k), Danny Rose (Spurs, free transfer), Ashley Fletcher (Middlesbrough, free transfer), Josh King (Everton, free transfer), Kwadwo Baah (Rochdale, undisclosed), Juraj Kucka (Parma, loan), Peter Eterbo (Stoke City, loan),
Outs: Will Hughes (Crystal Palace, £6.3m), Craig Dawson (West Ham, £2.07m), Ben Wilmot (Stoke City, £1.58m), Achraf Lazaar (Portimonense, free transfer), Stipe Perica (Maccabi Tel Aviv, free transfer), Filip Stuparevic (Metalac, free transfer), Isaac Success (Undinese), Adalberto Penaranda (Las Palmas, loan), Tom Dele-Bashiru (Reading, loan), Philip Zinckernagel (Nottingham Forest, loan), Pontus Dahlberg (Doncaster, loan), Jorge Segura (CD America, loan), Jerome Sinclair (end of contract), Carlos Sanchez (end of contract), Troy Deeney (Birmingham, free transfer)
Net spend: £3.83m
Rating: B-

WEST HAM

After years of being a laughing stock, West Ham surprised a few people by putting in their best season for years. For a few months they looked to be credible challengers for a Champions League place, though ultimately fell short.
After years of being a laughing stock, David Moyes surprised a few people by putting in his best season for almost a decade. For a few months he looked to have set West Ham up to be credible challengers for a Champions League place, and he has been rewarded in the market.
First up, he has strengthened his backline. Craig Dawson has been signed permanently after an exceptional season at the London Stadium. Alphonse Areola is an experienced goalkeeper who can be relied upon in a way that their current selection can't, and in Kurt Zouma they have a sturdy and decisive central defender who can be part of a consistent partnership with Dawnson.

Zouma leaves Chelsea after seven years

Image credit: Getty Images

Ins: Kurt Zouma (Chelsea, £31.5m), Nikola Vlasic (CSKA Moscow, £26.19m), Craig Dawson (Watford, £2.07m), Alphonse Areola (PSG, loan), Alex Kral (Spartak Moscow, loan)
Outs: Felipe Anderson (Lazio, £2.7m), Fabian Balbuena (Dynamo Moscow, free transfer), Frederik Alves (Sunderland, loan), Conor Coventry (Peterborough, loan), Xande Silva (Nottingham Forest, undisclosed)
Net spend: £62.82m
Rating: B+

WOLVES

What to say about Wolves? After Fosun brought in some promising talent from Portugal over the years, it appears that economic strife in China, a lack of interest in keeping this carousel turning, and the coronavirus have combined to see them produce a lacklustre transfer window.
The exit of a reliable 'keeper in Rui Patricio is a risk, and apart from that there's nothing overwhelmingly exciting. Indeed, Francisco Trincao is the only exciting presence, which is certainly needed given Nuno Espirito Santo left a side that was no longer attacking effectively.

Manchester United's English defender Luke Shaw (L) pulls away from Wolverhampton Wanderers' Portuguese striker Francisco Trincao during the English Premier League football match between Wolverhampton Wanderers and Manchester United at the Molineux stadium

Image credit: Getty Images

Hee-chan Hwang, a late loan signing from RB Leipzig, might simply be a back up to Raul Jimenez, but it is a risk going into a season with the Mexican as the main striker given his recovery from a serious injury could leave him vulnenrable.
Ins: Rayan Ait Nouri (Angers, £9.99m), Jose Sa (Olympiacos, £7.2m), Yerson Mosquera (Atletico Nacional, £4.68m), Bendeguz Bolla (Fehervar, £1.8m), Hee-chan Hwang (RB Leipzig, loan), Francisco Trincao (Barcelona, loan)
Outs: Rafa Mir (Sevilla, £14.4m), Rui Patricio (Roma, £10.35m), Owen Otasowie (Club Brugge, £3.6m), Leonardo Campana (Grasshopers, loan), Ruben Vinagre (Sporting Lisbon, loan), Patrick Cutrone (Empoli, loan), Renat Dadashov (Tondela, loan), Matija Sarkic (Birmingham, loan), Connor Ronan (St Mirren, loan), Morgan Gibbs-White (Sheffield United, loan)
Net spend: £4.68m profit
Rating: C
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