Palace were given assurances that their 750,000 pounds ($1.34 million) close season signing from MTK Hungaria would not play for in the World Cup qualifier at home to Iceland this week after being injured on international duty last month.
But Torghelle was still on the field to score in the 75th minute of Hungary's 3-2 win in Group Eight on Wednesday and Dowie has accused former Germany World Cup-winner Matthaus of breaking his word and risking the player's fitness.
He said: "Sandor played but we felt that wasn't right. The surgeon said he shouldn't travel and we had an assurance from Lothar. He said if we let Sandor go he would send him back on Tuesday without playing.
"We sent him with a letter from a specialist and that didn't happen. I don't understand. It's good he played but I wonder whether he's fully recuperated. If he comes back hobbling you will see one unhappy Premier League manager."
Torghelle is known as Hungary's answer to England striker Wayne Rooney in his homeland and sparkled on his debut for Palace, a 1-1 draw at fellow promoted club Norwich City on the opening day of the Premier League season.
But he has not been able to play again for Palace since damaging ankle ligaments in a friendly international against Scotland on August 18.
Dowie said: "He got injured and came off (against the Scots) but then they put him back on to play for another ten minutes!
"Then he flew four hours back to Hungary rather than come straight to London from Scotland. It wasn't the best management I've ever seen."
Torghelle will have a late fitness test to determine his readiness to face Portsmouth at Fratton Park on Saturday.