New Zealander Evans had qualified in second behind Red Bull protege Pierre Gasly, who picked up his maiden pole position.
Scrutineers however, found the tyre pressures on his Russian Time entry were below the minimum requirement and he was excluded from the session, but is permitted to start from the back of the grid.
The penalty promotes championship leader Stoffel Vandoorne to the front row, and Williams F1 development driver Alex Lynn to third.
Vandoorne: I had to dominate GP2
Sergio Canamasas, who had qualified ninth, was also excluded for the same reason, and will be permitted to start from the back like Evans.
Status Grand Prix driver Marlon Stockinger - who qualified 21st - picked up a three-place grid penalty for impeding Rene Binder between the Ascari chicane and the Parabolica.
Binder was also impeded by GP2 newcomer, and MP Motorsport team-mate, Meindert van Buuren between the same corners.
Van Buuren received a three-place grid penalty but will start from the pitlane as he qualified in 25th.
REVISED GRID LINE-UP
Vandoorne seals GP2 title in Russia
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