The 37-year-old has been in charge of the Robins for two years and guided them to the 2015 Challenge Cup final in his first full season at the helm.
But they are winless in three matches so far this campaign and the team were booed off the pitch following Sunday's 14-12 home defeat by last year's bottom club Wakefield.
A statement from the club said: "Hull Kingston Rovers can confirm that Chris Chester has been stood down as head coach with immediate effect.
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"Assistant coach Willie Poching will take charge of first-team affairs on Friday evening when the club face St Helens at the KC Lightstream Stadium."
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