The world number two made the third maximum break of his career during the 5-3 victory over Tian in Beijing.
Trump knocked an impressive sixth red into the middle to keep the 147 dream alive as he led the tie 3-1.
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And it was a nervy cut into the corner for the final black having played around the table with the pink off its spot and near the baulk cushion.
Judd Trump makes 147 in China Open
Trump did go on to lose the next two frames, but a break of 62 helped the 27-year-old reach the last eight.
"I've had a lot of good chances recently and it was nice to make a 147 on the TV table. The next frame I potted a good ball to get in," Trump told the World Snooker website.
"I then split the pack well but unfortunately the red went in. I probably would have made another century if that didn't happen, you need a bit of luck in those situations.
"After that he played well and things like that can change games, so I'm happy to get through."
Trump will now face Hossein Vafaei in the quarters, who beat Rory McLeod 5-2 in the third round.
Meanwhile, Shaun Murphy made light work of Michael White, winning 5-1 to set up a clash against Mark Williams, who edged out fellow former world champion John Higgins 5-4.
Williams had trailed the match 4-1, but then reeled off four frames in a row - capping off the victory with a break of 79 in the decider.
Elsewhere, Ding Junhui overcame Mark Joyce 5-3 to progress to the next round.
Ding was playing catch up for the lion’s share of the match but was the beneficiary of a large slice of luck having taken the lead at 4-3.
With the eighth frame finely poised and the pair engaged in a safety exchange, Ding managed to fluke the last red before seeing it out to progress to the next round.
CHINA OPEN THIRD-ROUND RESULTS
Mark Selby 5 – 4 Andrew Higginson
Ding Junhui 5 – 3 Mark Joyce
Kyren Wilson 5 – 2 Stuart Bingham
Stephen Maguire 5 – 1 Daniel Wells
Hossein Vafaei 5 – 3 Rory McLeod
Mark J Williams 5 – 4 John Higgins
Judd Trump 5 – 3 Tian Pengfei
Shaun Murphy 5 – 1 Michael White
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