The Scot made 123 to level the match at a frame each but in doing so recorded his 775th triple-figure break, moving him into joint second place on the all-time list.
However, he remains more than 200 behind five-time world champion Ronnie O'Sullivan, who has 1,021 centuries to his name.
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Higgins had lost the opening frame of the match to world No 88 Ursenbacher, but his momentous century proved to be the beginning of the end of the Austrian's challenge.
After a break of 69 in the first frame, he would score just 10 more points in the entire match as Higgins set up a last-32 meeting with Andrew Higginson tomorrow.

Watch Higgins equal Hendry record with century

Judd Trump followed Higgins onto the third round with a 4-0 whitewash of China's Yuan Sijun, although the scoreline flattered the victor.
Trump made just one break of more than 50 and showed clear signs of frustration before finally getting over the line.

'What a pot!' - Trump wins match with outrageous pink

Mark Selby was in better form as he beat Alfie Burden 4-1, passing 70 in four separate breaks, converting one into a century to make light work of his opponent.
But there was no such good news for Stephen Maguire, fresh from reaching the final of the UK Championship.
The Scot notched two centuries in the match but never recovered from Marco Fu jumping out to a 2-0 lead and the man from Hong Kong sealed a 4-2 victory.
Ronnie O'Sullivan flew through to the third round in record time, needing just 32 minutes to beat James Cahill 4-0, despite insisting afterwards that he was trying to play deliberately slower.

'What a start' - O'Sullivan hits 111 in just five minutes

Ding Junhui also wasted precious little time in his victory over Mei Xiwen, adding back-to-back centuries and scoring more than 250 unanswered points to leave his opponent cold and beaten 4-0.
Earlier, Gary Wilson had been one of the high-profile casualties of the second round as he was beaten by Chris Wakelin, who saw his opponent make a century in the opening frame before recording clearances of 128 and 134 on his way to a 4-1 win.
There were no such problems for Mark Allen, who beat Louis Heathcote by the same scoreline to become the first man into the third round.
The afternoon session also saw wins for Thepchaiya Un-Nooh, Joe Perry, Tom Ford and Elliot Slessor, who knocked out home player Anthony McGill.
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