Broad become the seventh bowler -- and second Englishman after team mate James Anderson -- to attain the milestone, reaching it in his 140th test.
It was his seventh wicket in the last of the three-match series against West Indies and has put England in a strong position to win with the tourists struggling at 45-3 as they chase an improbable 399 to win.
He has now taken 15 wickets in the series, even after being left out of the team for the first test at Southampton earlier this month, which ended a run of 51 successive test appearances at home for England.
The 34-year-old debuted for England in 2007 at Colombo with Chaminda Vaas his first, and only, wicket in that test at a cost of 95 runs. His test average has improved since to 28.38 with a best of 8-15 when he rampaged through the Australians at Trent Bridge in the Ashes five years ago.
The list of top test wicket takers is headed by Muttiah Muralitharan with 800, followed by fellow spinners Shane Warne (708) and Anil Kumble (619).
Anderson, bowling alongside Broad in the third test at Old Trafford, is 11 away from 600, followed by Glenn McGrath (563) and Courtney Walsh (519).
"He's been a real inspiration with the way he was worked over the last years," Anderson told Sky Sports on Tuesday.
I'm always amazed how he gets going in a spell and just blows teams away. He's in great shape and he can go on and get as many wickets as he wants.