Silva captained Brazil at this year's World Cup, when he was praised for holding together a shaky back four, but was left out of the team for last week's friendly in Turkey and could also start on the bench away to Austria on Tuesday.
"I respect the history of each individual in the Brazil team but this is my way of working," Dunga told reporters.
"Nobody loses out on anything when they are with the Brazilian team," said the prickly coach. "The Brazil team is the Brazil team, every day here has to be conquered; every single second, every single training session.
Real Madrid pip PSG and Chelsea to signing of £62m Brazilian wonderkid – Paper Round
"We believe in hierarchy and in rules, so that everyone in the group gets on with everyone else," he added. "We believe in organising our work, we don't like improvisation."
Neymar has been captain since the World Cup but Silva said neither the Barcelona player nor Dunga had told him of the decision.
"I never spoke to anyone, it was done without any conversation. That's what upsets me," Silva told Brazilian media on Sunday.
Dunga, who was previously Brazil coach for four years until the 2010 World Cup, was brought back for a second stint to rebuild the team after a disastrous end to this year's World Cup, when they lost their semi-final 7-1 to Germany.
He has made an impressive start with five straight wins and no goals conceded.
"We are working towards finding new leaders and we have to have various leaders," said Dunga.
"When some players join this team, they are comfortable from the first day," said Dunga. "Others take more time to settle in.
"Others get special attention in their clubs and when they come here they have to share it with others.
"Some just get praise all the time with their clubs, but when they come here they are subject to criticism and observations.
"Players have to be ready to stand this burden of criticism."
Women's Champions League
Miedema scores winner as Arsenal beat Juve to close on quarters
Premier League
Man Utd lose to Cadiz in mid-season friendly despite Martial penalty