With a steadier hand in the final rounds, Jin prevailed over Vietnam's Xuan Vinh Hoang, who made history on Saturday by winning his country's first gold medal.
Kim Song Guk of North Korea won the bronze in his first ever international final.
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The 36-year-old Jin, ranked No. 1 in the world, is one of the Olympics' most decorated pistol shooters, having won the 50 metre titles at Beijing and London, where he also claimed the 10m air pistol event.
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Almaktoum's historic Olympic gold in Athens 2004